Reference: Marchant, D.C., Polman R.C., Clough, P.J., Jackson, J.G., Levy, A. R., & Nicholls, A.R. (2008). Mental toughness: managerial and age differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(5), 428-437.
- Ian Mondrow
- United States
- I am a M.A. in industrial/organizational psychology. Most of my experience has been in human resources and change management. My passion lies in employee assessment, organizational development and employee opinions. Website: www.IanMondrow.com LinkedIn Profile: http://linkd.in/drBYoC
Sunday, September 26, 2010
Reference: Marchant, D.C., Polman R.C., Clough, P.J., Jackson, J.G., Levy, A. R., & Nicholls, A.R. (2008). Mental toughness: managerial and age differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(5), 428-437.
Reviewed by: Ian B. Mondrow, M.A.
The notion of mental toughness first made its appearance in sport psychology. There is a belief that mental toughness results in success. Previous research has suggested that have been 12 or 30 attributes that compose this theory. Currently, there is no set definition for the term as it varies depending on the research. For the purpose of this research, it has been defined as the confidence that an individual can control his/her own destiny regardless of competition or adversity (Clough et. al, 2002). It is composed of the 4C's:
Control - The belief that one is influential.
Commitment - The tendency to immerse oneself in an activity instead of avoiding it.
Challenge- The viewpoint that life is changeable and one should learn from mistakes.
Confidence - One's self-belief in their ability to achieve.
The Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 (MTQ48) is an assessment use to measure mental toughness within the sporting industry. It measures mental toughness and five sub-scales. The assessment has been found to be positively correlated with optimism and negatively correlated with pessimism. Both age and sporting experience have an impact on one's score.
The researchers of this study recruited 522 (210 male, 304 female, 8 missing) participants from organizations in the UK to take the MTQ48. 157 were senior managers, 189 were were middle managers, 112 were junior managers and 64 were in a clerical role. Prior to assessment, the reliability was tested with a Cronbach's Alpha of .89. Construct validity was also established due to the positive correlations with optimism (.48), self-image (.42), life satisfaction (.56), self-efficacy (.68) and trait anxiety (.57).
Two seperate MANOVAs were conducted for age and position level. It was found that higher level positions do indeed score higher on mental toughness than lower level positions. However, junior managers shared similar scores as those in a clerical role. The differences between the groups was statistically significant, as proved by post-hoc ANOVA. Age also revealed significant findings. This could suggest that mental toughness is a indicator for growth potential or that senior employees develop mental toughness as a result of their roles.
Older individuals scored significantly higher scores than their younger associates. The researchers claim that based on the results, it can be claimed that mental toughness can be developed like any other managerial skill. This is suggestive of the findings that mental toughness and the 4 subscales increased significantly with increasing age.
Since there was no interaction between age and position level, this would provide support that managerial positions are associated with mental toughness as a result of selection or development. It does suggest that mental toughness can be developed over time and/or by increasing the responsibilities of an employee.
IMPLICATIONS FOR HR
Although mental toughness is a novel term, it may prove valuable with future research. It is difficult to say how the notion could be utilized. It may be possible to use it for as selection criteria but it is not recommended unless it is essential for the job. At this point, mental toughness could be used development tool. It can assist employees with identifying their current level of toughness and identifying [using the sub-scales] where they need to improve. Potentially, it could assist employees with growing within an organization.
At this point, the term needs clarification and an official definition. Without it, it would be difficult to utilize in the field.
Reference: Van Hoye, G. & Lievens, F. (2003). The effects of sexual orientation on hirability rating: an experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(1), 15-30.
Summary by: Ian Mondrow, M.A.
Diversity management is an approach that encourages a comfortable and developing work environment for all employees regardless of their personal attributes. In 1993, The Society of Human Resource Management officially declared sexual orientation as a source of diversity. Although no Federal law protects GLB* (Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual) against discrimination, several states have regulations against discrimination based on sexual orientation. In addition, it is considered illegal to discriminate others in the public sector based on their sexual orientation. Unfortunately, 66% of GLB individuals have experienced discrimination based on his/her sexuality (Croteau, 1996 as cited in Van Hoye & Levens, 2003).
Research on sexual orientation in the workplace has been limited to gender norms and the subject of "coming out". Another issue includes work-related problems (i.e. bullying, violence, termination, etc.) of GLB employees. This topic is currently limited in studies but it is starting to gain popularity. The scarcity of research in this domain is a result of the challenge of being able to observe real candidates in a job setting. Due to this challenge, Van Hoye & Levens (2003) implement an experimental approach.
Van Hoye and Levens had a total of 135 selection individuals (from consulting firms or HR departments) in Flanders, Belgium participate in the study. Participants ages ranged from 24-59 with 69 males (51%) and 66 females (49%). Participants were mailed a job description for a HR Manager opening and 1 candidate profile. There was a total of 6 hypothetical candidate profiles that varied on candidate quality (poor, moderate, excellent) and lifestyle (gay or living with a man; heterosexual or living with a women; and single or living alone). Participants rated the candidate on a scale from 1 (strongly recommend not hiring) to 9 (strongly recommend hiring).
To the researchers' surprise, sexual orientation had no impact on the hirability, F(2, 126) <>F(4,126) = 161.43, p < .001. This is a comforting finding! No interaction was present. Demographics of the selection individual (age, gender, and years experience) had no impact as well.
The results of the study differ from previous research. Croteau (1996) had opposite results in his qualitative study. However, these were based on self-reports from GLB people. There is a possibility that these candidates viewed their sexual orientation as a reason for not securing the position instead of considering their suitability.
The following study has several limitations that must be considered. First of all, the study was conducted only in Belgium. Therefore, it can not be applied to other countries. Furthermore, other factors could have attributed to the hirability rating, such as the company culture or selection procedures. No information was collected regarding the select participants' personality viewpoint or their own sexual orientation, which could have been an influential factor. Finally, only written information was provided. In hiring, interviews often play a key role and the face-to-face interaction may have produced different findings.
IMPLICATIONS FOR HR PROFESSIONALS
Unfortunately, this study is not realistic. The study mentioned that lacking face-to-face interaction is a vital limitation. Therefore, I feel the candidate profiles were closer to resumes. When viewing a resume, it is extremely difficult to determine an individual's sexual orientation unless they list their involvement in a GLBT organization. If future studies examine face-to-face interviews, there are too many variations of personality for the study to create a representative sample (i.e. flamboyant, feminine, butch, etc.).
The study states that it is examining GLB individuals but from their candidate profiles, it appears that they were only studying the sexuality of male candidates. The profiles did not include female candidates.
As HR professionals, it is important not to consider one's race, age, sexual orientation, gender, etc. What matters most is if the individual has the knowledge, skills and abilities to succeed in the position. If an HR Manager is actively seeking out candidates of a specific audience, then they are open to prosecution from a candidate that was denied the job. Not to mention that it may hurt the company's image as an ethical organization.
*The technical term is GLBT. The T stands for transgender. Unfortunately, this study does not include transgender individuals in its study.
Thursday, September 23, 2010
While listening to the radio this morning, I heard them speak of Fox 2's Rob Wolchek's newest investigative report. Wolchek followed several Chrysler employees leave the Chrysler production plant to take their lunch break. Instead of running to the nearest McDonalds, these people made a visit to the liquor store. Following their purchase, they drove to a nearby park where they drank (more than casually) and smoked marijuana. Chrysler has suspended these employees until further notice.
As the radio show continued, a variety of callers shared their opinions. Some of them worked at the the Jefferson production plant, some worked for another automotive or just wanted to voice their opinion. There were many callers that suggested it was inappropriate for Fox 2 to broadcast this. Others were happy these individuals got caught. Here is my two cents on the situation:
- Public Place. Whenever you are in a public place, nothing is private. Going to a nearby park does not mean you can partake in deviant behavior. In addition, marijuana is illegal. Was Fox 2 harsh for broadcasting this report?... Yes but when you are in a public place, you are at risk of being seen.
- Safety. It is clear that alcohol can restrict your motor skills. Marijuana has a similar effect. What is even more frightening is that these individuals are around dangerous machinery all day. Not only is it a liability for Chrysler, but is increase the risk that they can potentially harm or kill themselves. There is also a possibility of harming an innocent person nearby.
- Quality and Image. I do not know about you but I have no interest in buying a Chrysler automobile now. How does this affect the assembly line? Yes, there are quality procedures in place but errors still occur.
- Goodbye. As an employer, I would waste no time terminating these employees. It is more difficult for Chrysler as they have to interact with the union. I would expect my employees to be alert and engaged in their day. It is not possible to do that while stoned or drunk.
For more information on this incident, please go to: http://www.myfoxdetroit.com/dpp/news/chrysler-auto-workers-busted_20100923_dk
Monday, September 20, 2010
Reference: Emelo, R. (2009). Mentoring in tough times. Industrial and Commercial Training, 41 (4), 207-211.
Summary by: Ian B. Mondrow
Randy Emelo, CEO of Triple Creek Associates, discusses how organizations can make a shift from matching mentees to mentors using an excel spreadsheet (and spending hours staying organized) to utilizing web based mentoring.
For starters, web based mentoring makes matching mentors and mentees easier. It is all done electronically and automatically. No personnel is spending time trying to match individuals to ideal mentors. Instead, mentors complete a profile that describes their professional history, skill and expertise. Mentees also create a profile but designate what skills/abilities they want to improve and/or learn. The system then provides the Mentee with several mentors to choose from. Once a decison is made, the mentee sends an invite to the individual asking if they would be a mentor. It is very similar to utilizing an online dating profile or sending a friend invite on Facebook.
Much like Facebook or LinkedIn, web based mentoring allows people to interact with others that they would not regularly socialize with. The systems allows mentees to find mentors that are outside of their department and creates connections across the organization. This provides employees with the opportunity to learn about areas outside of their expertise and thus increase engagement and commitment.
CDW provides a variety of tips to assist in implementing a web based mentoring system:
- Ensure stakeholders support the process.
- Relate it to the organization's mission and/or strategy.
- Make it available to every individual regardless of their position, tenure or employment status (full-time vs. part-time).
- Provide training and instructional materials to assist employees with utilizing the system.
- Communicate the program to employees continually so they log in and utilize the system.
Implications for HR:
Consider a web based mentoring program if funds are available. If funds are not available, see if a free intern is available to help design this (depending on how good he/she is). Once the system is running, it seem increases communication across the organization and provides employees with developmental opportunities (at no cost to the organization). Just be sure to communicate the benefits of the system regularly and host events that encourage mentoring (i.e. lunch-ins, bowling nights, etc.).
Before purchasing any web-based software, be sure to compare the pricing and features of several companies. Always ask for samples of work and references. It is crucial to use a technology company that provides support following the implementation of the system.
Image from: http://alumni.concordia.ca/images/programs/mentor/alien.gif
Sunday, September 19, 2010
Reference: Preston, A. (2009). Balancing training and development programmes for your team. Industrial and Commercial Training, 41(3), 142-145.
Reviewed by: Ian B. Mondrow, M.A.
Andy Preston is the Director and Head Trainer at Outstanding Results in Stockport, United Kingdom. Although Preston focuses on sales training, much of the content that he writes about can be applied to any department or industry. Preston speaks of his experiences interacting with companies and how they exclaim their training is ineffective. As a result, he compiled a list of four reasons as to why training can fail in an organization. The four reasons (and an unofficial reason) are as follows:
- TIMING. It can be claimed that the timing of training is crucial for its success. If training is too early, then the information may be forgotten. However, if it is too late, employees may see no value.
- CREDIBILITY. As previously demonstrated, timing plays a crucial component in the credibility of training. Furthermore, the attitudes of supervisors & managers impact the credibility. If a manager demonstrates that he/she does not approve training, then employees are less likely to take the training seriously. This is also true for senior level executives.
- INSPIRATION. A trainer must be enthusiastic about the content. If not showing inspiration, then the training will have no impact on its learners.
- LENGTH. If a training is too long, then the participates lose interest and engagement decreases. It is common for organizations to make their programs too long, especially new hire orientations. A more effective method is a series of formal training with on-the-job training.
- NO BALANCE BETWEEN EXTERNAL & INTERNAL. Internal personnel become very bored of seeing the same content repetitively. Hiring an external resource (such as a consultant or training firm) can provide a different perspective on the content. Organizations are missing out if they are not utilizing these resources.
- NOT FOLLOWING TRAINING THROUGH. After the completion of the training, it is vital to follow up. This is a common practice for organizations. Training should be followed with action plans, coaching and feedback to optimize the information learned in training.
Implications for Human Resources:
For a training program to be successful, HR professionals should...
- Ensure that it is being administered in a timely fashion.
- In addition, HR should attempt to achieve buy-in from supervisors and managers. Their support can assist in employee participation and engagement.
- Utilize external consultants to develop innovative training and facilitate training sessions to bring variety to the organization.
- Spread the training out over several days and ensure it is no longer than a few hours.
- Follow-up with training by ensuring managers are modeling the new information and coaching employees on what they learned.
- Ensure the facilitator is generally interested in the topic.
Sunday, September 12, 2010
Everyday, more HR departments are beginning to utilize technology to simplify some of the required functions utilizing employee self-service, managerial self-service, and human resource information systems. These are otherwise referred to as electronic human resource management (eHRM). The most popular form allows employees to monitor their own HR information or benefits, often referred to as the employee self-service (ESS). In addition, the managerial self-service (MSS) allows managers to access HR tools via interview, assisting them in administering pay, developing employees or managing performance. Human resource information systems (HRIS) have become essential for all corporations as it stores and analyzes information about the organization's personnel.
A Performance Appraisal (PA) system can be utilized in a MSS or both a MSS and ESS, in which employees can access information about their review. Transitioning to an electronic performance appraisal assist in archiving previous appraisals and allows for easy comparisons.
Payne, Horner, Boswell, Schroeder and Cheyne (2009) decided to evaluate PAs on the following constructs:
- Rater Accountability: The requirement to justify a score and/or provide feedback.
- Security: Employees being able to access only their information and supervisors only being able to view information of those who report to them.
- Quality: Ratings and feedback provide constructive and useful feedback that can be utilized to improve performance.
- Satisfaction: The extent to which the PA meets the needs and expectations of company personnel.
- Utility: The extent to which the employee acquired information that demonstrates to the employee how he/she can improve their performance.
- Participation: The extent to which employees feel involved in the PR process.The researchers utilized 631 staff employees within a specific division of a Southern US University whom were partaking in their annual PA. A total of 235 individuals participated. 152 out of 272 (56%) evaluated the online PA system and 83 of 359 (23%) evaluated the traditional PA (paper and pencil). 67% of the respondents in the Online PA group were female and 69.9% of the tradition PA group were female. Respondents evaluated all items on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree).
The researchers have found several significant findings between online and traditional (paper and pencil) performance appraisals (PAs). Employees that partook in the online appraisal (M = 3.6,SD = .72) rated supervisor accountability higher than those who took the traditional appraisal (M = 3.3, SD = .7; F (1,158) = 8.4, p < .05).
In addition, participants in online PAs (M = .17, SD = .62) reported higher levels of participation than the traditional PAs (M = .08, SD =.55; F(1,158) = 9.50, p <.05).
In regards to quality, the pen & paper PA (M = 3.51, SD = .75) was rated significantly higher than the online PA (M = 3.12, SD = .83; F(1,158) = 8.04, p < .05). Since this is the first time an electronic PA was administered, people may have been unaware of how to properly use it. Results may have differed if the online PA was used in previous appraisals. It appears that switching to an online lowers the perceived quality among employees initially and organizations should be sure to communicate the transformation properly to reduce this occurrence.
Although it was hypothesized that the online PA would create a higher sense of security, no significant difference was present between the groups. Some individuals understand how security is increased using an online PA, while others are believe there is a threat to security.
No significant difference was present in regards to utility. There was no significant difference in regards to satisfaction.
The study did not follow ideal experimental guidelines, such as random sampling, and thus there may be a threat to validity in the study. However, this research can be used as a framework for upcoming studies. Future studies may want to evaluate other variables including: age, type of job, job level and personality difference.
What does this study tell HR professionals?
The study clearly demonstrates that whenever an organization changes its approach to PA, that it should clearly communicate how the process will change. Employees should undergo training on how the new system works and how it can assist them on their job. Employees should also be informed on how an electronic PA will increase the overall security. Furthermore, the study shows that people are more likely to fill out electronic PAs than tradition PAs and personnel feel that managers are obligated to provide background information to accompany the ratings. Therefore, it is in an organization's best interest to implement this type of procedure since it simplifies the entire PA process and will have no affect on employee satisfaction.
Payne, S.C., Horner, M.T., Boswell, W.R., Schroeder, A.N., & Stine-Cheyne, K.J. (2009). Comparison of online and traditional performance appraisal systems. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(6), 526-544.
Picture extracted from:
Saturday, September 11, 2010
"Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror. The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness and a quiet, unyielding anger."
--George W. Bush
September 11th is a tragic day for all Americans. Each one of us remembers where we were when we heard that the World Trade Center and the Pentagon was struck by a commercial airplane. I will never forget the look of fear that everyone had and the concern for those we love. On this day every year, the media bombards us with images of the event and we mourn for those who lives were lost.
As a result of 9/11, emergency preparedness has received attention in the the public and private sector. Corporations have developed emergency preparedness manuals and encourage managers to communicate the procedures. In addition, corporations are ensuring that they have accommodations for those that are handicapped. These individuals are either placed in offices near emergency exits or are provided a contact that will assist them in an emergency. September 11th was a reminder that we need to be prepared and that we need to protect all of our staff.
September 11th was clearly a tragic day but it was a red flag to many employers. Employers now understand the importance of communicating and practicing emergency evacuations.
Wednesday, September 8, 2010
At the age of 24, I have not even begun to start planning for my retirement. In fact, 83% of employed individuals do not have a plan of how to convert their savings into a source of income at retirement (Christman, 2010). What is more alarming is that 73% of retirees had wished they started planning their retirement income at least 10 years earlier (Christman, 2010). In today's time, pension plans are decreasing and there is a uncertainty regarding the future of Social Security. Below are some suggestions of how companies can assist with retirement planning:
- Invite a Financial Advisor on Site. There are an abundance of financial firms available that provide advisement services on retirement planning. Research these local firms and invite them to spend a day in the offices. Most of these firms jump to this opportunity because it helps them to increase business. These advisors can either leader group training sessions or have short one-on-one sessions.
- Utilize autosaving. Procrastination is our worst enemy. Employees continually delay registering for plans. Automatic enrollment and automatic deferral allows employees to register for plans quickly and easily. In addition, it can assist employees with understanding their contributions.
- Do not neglect the young employees. Training younger employees on the benefits of saving can have a drastic influence on their savings. They may be able to contribute less over the years or create plans that allow for a more comfortable income at retirement.
- Communicate with older employees. It is suggested to start educating five years from retirement. People are generally starting to plan their retirement at this stage but they also have plenty of time to make needed changes.
- Invite Social Security on site. Research a local Social Security office and contact them about having a representative visit the office. The representative can speak to individuals about how Social Security will function in their retirement, potential changes in Social Security and to address any concerns.
Christman, B.D. (2010). The next retirement hurdle: why today's employees need more than a savings plan. Benefits Quarterly, 2, 30-35.
Monday, September 6, 2010
Florence Stone (2005) claims that many of today's organizations leaders have lost of the trust of their followers due to their lack of honesty. However, Florence suggests that credibility and honesty are sometimes used interchangeably. While honesty is a crucial component of credibility, it is only one component of many. Luckily for us, it is suggested that the skills and abilities of credibility can be learned. Acquiring these can assist in establishing positive first impressions wither interviewers, supervisor or your team. Stone has consolidated a list of skills/abilities to assist in increasing credibility.
1) Interfacing Effectively One-on-One or before Groups
As a leader, one is expected to interact with others on a daily basis. In fact, it is crucial to be successful. While speaking to others seems simple, messages can be easily distorted and risk the loss of credibility. To avoid this, follow three simple guidelines: (1) Say what is intended; (2) Be strong-willed and courteous when assigning work; and (3) Know your presentation (i.e. who is audience? What are the deadlines? etc.).
2) Modeling and Encouraging Initiative
Managers should encourage their employees to be creativity and innovative. To assist in this process, people should remember to be open, listen and educated. Openness is crucial because employees are more prepared to make decisions. Educating/training employees ensures that barriers/issues are avoiding when working on a project. Listening assists a team leader in ensuring that a plan is being followed properly before being put into action.
3) Being Solution-Oriented
Mistakes are bound to happen but a credible leader embraces these mistakes and learns from them. A leader should set objectives and support the objectives regardless of any sudden changes that may occur. Being able to brainstorm and negotiate is an important skill to overcome the challenges. The credible leader can communicate the goal, be objective and show determination to reaching the goal.
4) Heading Courageously
The credible leader is confident that performance is at 100% and works to achieve this on every project. Even if employees fear the leader, they still follow him/her due to their level of respect or trust. The leader should reward those that focus more on the group than his/her well-being.
5) Establishing Loyalty and Trust
As emphasized earlier, trust is crucial to credibility. To effectively establish trust, it is vital to be consistent in messages and encourage employees to express themselves without fear of consequences. Holding in feelings encourages a breeding group for distrust.
6) Thinking Outside the Box
A credible leader embraces change and is prepared for it when it occurs unexpectedly or as planned. The leader clearly communicates the change and works with the team to adapt.
7) Creating and Implementing a Plan
Time management and prioritizing assists a leader with appearing in control the stress occurring in the office. While being open to change, the credible leader uses tools, such as to-do list, to meet his/her goals. He/she is able to politely say "no" to someone to avoid unnecessary work for the group.
8) Thinking Strategically
The credible leader enjoys the work and clearly models it through his/her behavior. As a result, it encourages others to become interested as well. They also stay up-to-date in their industry to be avoid any sudden changes that could affect their work.
9) Reaching Out to Others
This individual is a team player. He/she is more than happy to assist his/her employees and works to make them feel special.
10) Being a Life Long Learner
These professionals are always willing to learn from their experiences and barriers. They are dedicated to solve their goal and be successful in their task.
After reviewing the criteria established by Stone (2005), are you a credible leader? If not, consider sitting down with your supervisor and setting an action plan to become the credible leader. These individuals are priceless to the organization.
Stone, F. (2005). Credibility: it's more than a matter of integrity. Employee Relations Today, 9-15.
Sunday, September 5, 2010
The EEOC currently defines sexual harassment as the following: "Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment" (EEOC, 2002). In 2002, 97% of employers included sexual harassment in their policies. 62% of these employers also provided training on sexual harassment (Blackman, 2005 as cited in Tyner & Clinton, 2010). According to the EEOC, there were approximately 12,969 sexual harassment receipts in 2009. Although the number has decreased from 15,889 in 1997, the number is still large and only covers the cases of sexual harassment that are reported to the EEOC. However, the percentage of male-on-male sexual harassment continues to rise. In 1997, about 12% of EEOC cases were male-on-male based but this has increased to 16% in 2009. To make matters worse, 50% of sexual harassment victims are hesitant in claiming themselves as a victim (Mecca & Rubin, 1999; Calderon, 1999; Gerrity, 2000 as cited in Tyner & Clinton, 2010).
Unlike other litigation, sexual harassment is difficult to define as it varies on if the sexual behavior is welcomed by the participant or not. What is acceptable to one person, may not be acceptable to another. The U.S. current uses the "reasonable victim" system. To be a reasonable victim, the harassing behavior is compared to the standards of the specific gender; i.e. "If the victim is a a woman, it's a reasonable woman standard. If the victim is a man, it's a reasonable man standard" (Risser, as cited in Tyner & Clinton, 2010). While sexual harassment is researched extensively, research on HR professionals and their sexual harassment experiences is limited.
Tyner and Clinton (2010) used the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) by Fitzgerald. This assessment is merely a psychological assessment and has no legal merit. The SEQ uses a 5 point likeart scale that ranges from "Never"(0) to "Many times" (5). The researchers edited all the questions to start with "In the past 5 years" instead of the original: "during the past 24 months". The questions focused on three sub scales:
1) Gender harassment - Verbal and non-verbal behaviors that create a hostile environment and demeaning attitudes about women.
2) Unwanted sexual attention -- verbal and non-verbal gestures that is unwanted and insulting.
3) sexual coercion -- blackmailing that may have a negative effect on one's job.
The survey was administered to 124 participants, all of whom were members of the Oklahoma City Human Resource Society, The Enid Society of Human Resource Managers and/or the Stillwater Area Human Resource Society. The survey received a response rate of 25.35%. 26 (23.6%) of the respondents were male and 84 (73.4%) were female.
98 (89.1%) of participants stated that they were victims of gender harassment. 52 (47.3%) stated to be a target of unwanted sexual attention. 7 (6.4%) admitted that they had faced sexual
coercion (quid pro quo) before. However, when asked "Have you been sexually harassed?", only 32 (29.1%) said yes.
The results yield that unwanted sexual behavior occurs often for HR professionals, which may suggest that they have a thorough understanding of unwelcome behavior and sexual harassment laws. This is most likely because organizations expect them to be an expert in sexual harassment. Unfortunately, the experts on sexual harassment are often victims themselves which can cause a complicated challenge. While these individuals may be able to report these occurrences, there is promise that their supervisor is prepared to handle or confront the situation. It is suggested that an alternate person is assigned this responsibility, preferably a legal counsel.
While the study produces alarming findings, it is no where near a representation of the population as it is based on a Oklahoma based population. However, the gender distribution of the study closely reflects the distribution of gender in the HR industry. For future research, it suggested to obtain a more diverse sample pertaining to location. It is also suggested to consider other demographics including race, religion and age.
Tyner, L.J. & Clinton, M.S. (2010). Sexual harassment in the workplace: are human resource victims? Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 14(1), 33-49.
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2002). Retrieved September 5, 2010 from: http://www.eeoc.gov/.